Pauls Quiz 264

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1. Which 1977 film was based on the unsuccessful Allied military operation 'Market Garden', which was supposed to end the Second World War by Christmas 1944?

2. Name the three seas beginning with the letter 'B' that border, or lie within, the Arctic Circle. One point for each correct answer.

3. Since 1960, which six women have won the most Grand Slam singles titles in tennis? One point for each correct answer.

4. Although he graduated last in his class at West Point, which headstrong and flamboyant officer became, age 23, the youngest general in US military history?

5. Name the film in which Humphrey Bogart plays the following characters. One point for each correct answer.
a. Sam Spade
b. Phillip Marlowe
c. Charlie Allnut
d. Lt. Cmdr. Queeg

6. The name for interstellar clouds of dust and gas is a Latin word meaning cloud. What is the Latin word for cloud?

7. King Henry VII was the last King of England to gain his crown in which manner?

8. Three of the five countries in the world with the shortest coastlines are found in Europe, Can you name them? One point for each correct answer.

9. The name of which bone in the human body is the Latin word for 'small pan' or 'dish'?

10. In which large city would you find a district named 'Hell's Kitchen'?

ANSWERS

1. A Bridge Too Far Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation, fought in the Netherlands and Germany in the Second World War. It was the largest airborne operation up to that time. Field Marshal Montgomery's goal was to force an entry into Germany over the Lower Rhine. He wanted to circumvent the northern end of the Siegfried Line and this required the operation to seize the bridges across the Maas (Meuse River) and two arms of the Rhine (the Waal and the Lower Rhine) as well as several smaller canals and tributaries. Crossing the Lower Rhine would allow the Allies to encircle Germany's industrial heartland in the Ruhr from the north. It made large-scale use of airborne forces, whose tactical objectives were to secure the bridges and allow a rapid advance by armored units into Northern Germany. Several bridges between Eindhoven and Nijmegen were captured at the beginning of the operation but Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks' XXX Corps ground force advance was delayed by the demolition of a bridge over the Wilhelmina Canal, an extremely overstretched supply line at Son, and failure to capture the main road bridge over the river Waal before 20 September. At Arnhem, the British 1st Airborne Division encountered far stronger resistance than anticipated. In the ensuing battle, only a small force managed to hold one end of the Arnhem road bridge and after the ground forces failed to relieve them, they were overrun on 21 September. The rest of the division, trapped in a small pocket west of the bridge, had to be evacuated on 25 September. The Allies had failed to cross the Rhine in sufficient force and the river remained a barrier to their advance until offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim, Rees and Wesel in March 1945. The failure of Market Garden ended Allied expectations of finishing the war by Christmas 1944.

2. Three answers. Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea and Bering Sea

3. Six answers. Margret Smith Court (24), Steffi Graf (22), Chris Evert (18), Martina Navratilova (18), Serena Williams (13), Billie Jean King (12)

4. General George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (1839 – 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1858, where he graduated last in his class. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army.

5. Four answers
a. The Maltese Falcon
b. The Big Sleep
c. The African Queen
d. The Caine Mutiny

6. NebulaA nebula (Latin for "cloud"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula (and spiral galaxies in general as "spiral nebulae") before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others.

7. On the battlefield

8. Three answers. Monaco (5.6 km), Bosnia and Herzegovina (20 km), Slovenia (30 km).

9. Patella The patella, also known as the kneecap or kneepan, is a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur (thigh bone) and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint. The patella is found in most vertebrates such as mice, cats, and birds, but not in whales or most reptiles and amphibians such as snakes or frogs. In humans, the patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Babies are born with a patella of soft cartilage which begins to ossify into bone at about three years of age.

10. New York City Hell's Kitchen, also known as Clinton and Midtown West, is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, between 34th Street in the south, 59th Street in the north, Eighth Avenue in the east, and the Hudson River to the west. The area provides transport, medical, and warehouse infrastructure support to Manhattan's Midtown business district. Once a bastion of poor and working-class Irish Americans, Hell's Kitchen's proximity to Midtown has changed it over the last three decades of the 20th century and into the new millennium. The 1969 edition of the City Planning Commission's Plan for New York City reported that development pressures related to its Midtown location were driving people of modest means from the area, and the gritty reputation that Hell's Kitchen developed afterward kept real estate prices below those of most other areas of Manhattan. Since the early 1990s, the area has been gentrifying, and rents skyrocketed. Being close to both Broadway theatres and Actors Studio training school, the area has long been a home to actors learning and practicing their craft.

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